Medieval and Early Modern Diplomacy Conference, Leiden

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from Steffen Rimner:

Beyond Ambassadors: Missionaries, Consuls and Spies in Premodern Diplomacy
Date 29 September 2016 – 30 September 2016
Location
Johan Huizinga Building
Doelensteeg 16
2311 VL Leiden
Room Conference Room (2.60)

How should diplomatic historians interpret the role of missionaries, consuls, spies and intelligence agents in international affairs in medieval and early modern times?

Due to the overarching shadow of ‘the state’ as the official representative of all things diplomatic, the study of other actors in international relations than state diplomats has been neglected by traditional Diplomatic History. In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, taken together as premodern times, international relations were no monopoly of the state or the sovereign. Many individuals, groups and administrative units and interest groups maintained contacts independently of states and princes and were actors in a wide field of transnational rather than international character. Missionaries of various Roman Catholic orders or of different Christian denominations were working according to their own policies, independently from princes, or in cooperation with them. Consuls representing commercial interest groups supported the interests of merchants and traders. Spies were infiltrating the courts of Europe to secretly gather information. These groups were oriented nationally but not infrequently also transnationally. They acted increasingly as quasi-officials of sovereigns and states to whom they provided services and by whom their mediating position was sanctioned. An expanding multitude of individuals of various alloy was engaged in collecting political information which they offered to sovereigns and others. They often operated on a temporary basis for one prince or client and then for another and were able to provide many types of information for which they drew on a network of international contacts.

This conference focuses on the question of how and why these people not formally tied to the state or a prince could occupy a position in international relations. This question is all the more urgent as the last few decades historical research – in the context of the so-called new diplomatic history – has shown that state diplomacy in premodern times has not been overpowering and all-determining for Europe’s international relations.

Programme Thursday 29th September 2016

Opening session Welcome and Keynote Speech
14.00: Registration and Welcome
14.15: Opening: Maurits Ebben and Louis Sicking
Chair: Louis Sicking
14.30 Keynote speech: Ambassadors and other actors in medieval and early modern diplomacy (John Watkins, University of Minnesota)

Session 1 Missionaries
15.00: Opening first session
Chair: Jeroen Duindam
Speakers:
15:10: Jacques Paviot (Université de Paris-Est Créteil)
Before Ambassadors: Missionnaries to the Mongol sovereigns (XIIIe siècle)
15.40: Felicia Rosu (Leiden University)
A New Promised Land: Jesuit politics in Transylvania, Muscovy, and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1579-1619
16:10: Christian Windler (University of Bern)
Members of Religious Orders as Political Intermediaries in Safavid Iran
16.40: discussion and conclusions
17.00: drinks
Programme Friday 30th September 2016

Session 2 Consular Networks and Diplomacy: Commercial and State Agents
10.00: Coffee and tea
10.15: Opening second session
Chair: Peter Hoppenbrouwers
Speakers:
10.25: Louis Sicking (Leiden University)
‘Vitten’ and ‘Voogden’: Space and Representation in Late Medieval Scania
10.55: Maurits Ebben (Leiden University)
‘Your High Mightinesses’ Most Humble Servants’ Consuls and Dutch foreign affairs, 1650-1700
11.25: Jörg Ulbert (Université de Bretagne Sud, Lorient)
Why were the French consuls of the Ancien Régime not under the responsibility of Foreign Affairs?
11.55: discussion and conclusions

Session 3 Spies and Intelligence Agents
14.00: Opening third session
Chair: Maurits Ebben
Speakers:
14.10: Bastian Walter-Bogedain (Bergische Universität Wuppertal)
Credible men, good friends and chatty women: the importance of espionage during the Burgundian Wars (1468-1477)
14.40: Nadine Akkerman (Leiden University)
Britain she-intelligencers, 1647-1667
15.10: Alain Hugon (Université de Caen)
Where were spies coming from and were they useful?
15.40: discussion and conclusions
16.00: Tea/Coffee
16.30: Concluding remarks (John Watkins, University of Minnesota) and discussion
17.00: Closure and drinks
Speakers

Akkerman, Nadine (Leiden University, NL)
Ebben, Maurits (Leiden University, NL)
Hugon, Alain (Université de Caen, F)
Paviot, Jacques (Université de Paris-Est Créteil, F)
Rosu, Felicia (Leiden University, NL)
Sicking, Louis (Leiden University, NL and VU University Amsterdam, NL)
Ulbert, Jörg (Université de Lorient, F)
Walter-Bogedain, Bastian (Universität Münster, D)
Watkins, John (University of Minnesota, USA)
Windler, Christian (University of Bern, CH)
Chairs

Duindam, Jeroen (Leiden University, NL)
Ebben, Maurits (Leiden University, NL)
Hoppenbrouwers, Peter (Leiden University, NL)
Sicking, Louis (Leiden University, NL and VU University Amsterdam, NL)
Organisation

Dr. M.A. Ebben (Leiden University, NL)
Prof. dr. L.H.J. Sicking (Leiden University, NL and VU University Amsterdam, NL)
Information

Dr. M.A. Ebben (m.a.ebben@hum.leidenuniv.nl)
Registration

Until September 26 2016 via: history@hum.leidenuniv.nl
Attendance

MA (Research) students
Dutch and international colleagues

CFP: Forging the American Century (Nijmegen)

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from Jorrit van den Berk:

Call For Papers

Forging the American Century

World War II and the transformation of U.S. internationalism

Nijmegen, the Netherlands, October 27-28

The intersection of contemporary debates about the future of American power and recent developments in the field of diplomatic history compel us to reconsider the foundations and contours of the American Century.

“Forging the American Century”, seeks to combine the current concern for America’s changing role in the world with new and developing insights into the nature of international relations to revisit the origins of the American Century: World War II and its aftermath. The conference is not about the high diplomacy of the war, nor is it necessarily about the start of the Cold War. Instead, it will address the ways in which the World War and America’s rise to global power drove Americans in different fields, both inside and outside the sphere of formal diplomacy, to forge new connections with the world. We will also address the many ways in which people around the world responded to the new or changing American presence.

By invoking the term “American Century”, we do not intend to link up to Henry Luce’s original arguments. With its confusing mix of jingoism, democratic idealisms, free market enthusiasm, nationalism, and naiveté, Luce’s “American Century” has rarely been taken seriously as a blueprint for American internationalism. However, the concept of an “American Century” has recently made a comeback in discussions about the United States’ relative decline. Can the United States maintain its international economic position in the face of Chinese competition? Have the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq caused irreparable damage to its role as an international leader? Will rising powers, especially the much-discussed BRICS countries, challenge the liberal world order that the United States has built and sustained?

In a recent anthology that he described as a “dissenter’s guide to the American Century”, Andrew Bacevich argues that:

“the conditions that once lent plausibility to visions of an American Century [have] ceased to exist…Contemporary reality no longer accommodate[s] the notion of a single nation arrogating to itself the role of a Good Samaritan, especially a nation with dirty hands…The utility of Luce’s formulation as a description of the contemporary international order or as a guide to future U.S. policy has been exhausted.”

Others have been more optimistic, both about the nature of the American Century and its future. Joseph Nye defines it as “the extraordinary period of American preeminence in military, economic, and soft power resources that have made the United States central to the workings of the global balance of power, and to the provision of global public goods”. While the international environment will become more complicated in the future, he announces simply that “the American century is not over”.

The running debates over the future of American power make this an opportune moment to reconsider the foundations of U.S. internationalism, especially in the light of recent innovations in the field of diplomatic history. Over the past fifteen years, terms such as empire, soft power, and anti-Americanism have become commonplace in discussions of America’s role in the world. Foreign policy, power politics, and the work of statesmen and professional diplomats no longer dominate histories of U.S. foreign relations. Current scholarly interest in soft power, public diplomacy, and Americanization have opened the field to the study of culture. “New” diplomatic historians study the role of individuals, networks, musicians, athletes, transnational movements and a wide variety of other forms of “informal” diplomacy. A focus on American action has made room for the study of interaction: the ways in which peoples throughout the world have resisted, negotiated, or welcomed the American presence.

Disciplines and topics

We welcome scholars from all disciplinary and theoretical backgrounds to present fresh insights into the historical foundations of U.S. power and the international order it helped to create during and (immediately) after the Second World War. The following questions may be helpful in formulating contributions to this conference:

How did the War and its aftermath change the practice of diplomacy? How did diplomats develop new strategies to reach out to the world? How did they coopt private initiatives or vice versa?
How did individuals, companies, civic groups, and other “informal” diplomats shape America’s global presence during and after the war?
How did the United States shape the international environment through its support for new diplomatic, financial, and economic institutions? To what extent did those new institutions shape U.S. actions?
How did America’s new role in the world shape its domestic culture, politics, or society?
How have Europeans, Asians, Africans, and Latin Americans resisted, negotiated, or welcomed the new American presence.
How have processes of historical memory and (re)interpretations of World War II shaped U.S. internationalism in domestic and transnational contexts?

Our key note speakers

We are delighted to welcome these distinguished scholars to our conference:

Professor David Ellwood (Johns Hopkins University, SAIS Europe, Bologna)
Dr. Justin Hart (Texas Tech University);
Professor Bruce Kuklick (University of Pennsylvania)

Paper Proposals

We invite proposals for 20-minute papers. Please send a 300 word abstract and brief biographical note to j.vandenberk@let.ru.nl by July 15, 2016

Date and location

The conference will take place at the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, on October 27-28, 2016. This conference is an initiative of the North American Studies Program at the Radboud University. For more information about our program and our staff please visit www.ru.nl/nas.

Please note that a small fee may apply for participants in this conference.

New Diplomatic History: Call for Papers, University of Copenhagen 11/2016

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Call for Papers
DK NDH Call
Borders, Networks, and Organisations through the 20th Century
2nd Conference of the New Diplomatic History Network
Centre for Modern European Studies, University of Copenhagen
24-26 November 2016
Confirmed Keynotes:
Noe Cornago (University of the Basque Country)
Iver Neumann (LSE)
Geoff Pigman

This conference aims to gather together scholars from all relevant disciplines who have diplomacy as their main subject of interest. The New Diplomatic History (NDH) network was founded several years ago to promote the study of diplomacy, diplomats, their institutions, and the cultural, political and social contexts which shape them and in which they function. This ‘rediscovery’ of diplomacy and the diplomat has involved reassessing the role and identities of those involved in the diplomatic realm, and how the distinctions between official state diplomats and non-state actors have become blurred. This involves both a ‘broadening’ and a ‘deepening’ of diplomatic studies: a widening of its field of interest, and a focusing of its attention on the individual, the particular and the ephemeral. NDH therefore welcomes the introduction of approaches from cultural studies and the social sciences, and promotes the use of new methods from oral history, prosopography, memory studies, gender studies, discourse analysis, the sociology of knowledge, musicology, the study of emotions, gastronomy, network theory, and the digital humanities to open up new fields of diplomatic investigation.

Special attention is also given to the ‘digital revolution’ in the storage of and production of knowledge. How do we write diplomatic history in a digital age? Sources are being digitized and new digital research tools being developed, and from the 1990s onwards we are dealing with sources that were born digital. How do we handle the challenges of vast amounts of (new) data, how do we critically engage with new kinds of sources, and what opportunities does ‘big data’ offer?

In order to provide structure to this wide variety of approaches, this conference is organised around three broad themes:

1) Borders of Bureaucracy, Diplomacy and Politics
This theme covers the transformation of diplomatic, bureaucratic and political practices in national, transnational and international settings through the last century. How have responsibilities, competences, and norms developed in the field of diplomacy through professionalization and multilateralisation? How have these processes played out and interlinked at the national, transnational and international levels? How should we understand and interpret the changing behavior, rituals, and semiotics of diplomatic activity?

2) The Rise of Global Civil Society and the Role of Transnational Networks
This theme explores how diplomats and ministries of foreign affairs have disputed, adhered to or incorporated competences and discourses from an increasingly global civil society. Transnational networks, social movements and cross-border alliances have transformed the spaces and settings of international politics, particularly through effective media techniques and the use of digital technologies. Many of them have adopted or assumed ‘diplomatic roles’, either in alliance with foreign ministries or entirely separate from them. Are new forms of diplomacy and new diplomatic actors being established? How have diplomacy and diplomats responded to these changes? Has diplomacy as a practice been radically altered?

3) Europe, International Organisations and Diplomacy
This theme investigates how diplomatic practices, responsibilities and norms have changed with the growth of international organisations, and how in turn diplomats have contributed to establishing, shaping, hindering, and running them. In particular, it is evident that the processes of European integration have generated new arenas for diplomatic interaction, both enhancing the political role of the diplomat but also transmuting diplomatic loyalties over time. European integration has reconstituted the very fabric of diplomacy. But how, when and to what degree? How have other international and regional organisations changed, and been changed by, diplomacy?

Call for Papers
All paper and panel proposals that address the above subject-areas are welcome. Please send 300-word proposals, together with a one-page CV, to the conference email:
NewDH2016@gmail.com
Deadline for proposals: 30 April 2016
Organising Committee:
Karen Gram-Skjoldager (Aarhus University)
Haakon Ikonomou (Aarhus University)
Dino Knudsen (University of Copenhagen)
Marianne Rostgaard (Aalborg University)
Giles Scott-Smith (Leiden University)

Paris Conference: J.-B. Duroselle & P. Renouvin

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“Pierre Renouvin, Jean-Baptiste Duroselle (1917-2017): The Building of an academic field, the History of International Relations”
Paris, June 8-10, 2017
Deadline: 1st June 2016

Co-organizers: L. Badel (Professor, Panthéon Sorbonne University), R. Frank (Professor Emeritus, Panthéon Sorbonne University), A. Marès (Professor, Panthéon Sorbonne University), G.-H. Soutou (Professor Emeritus, Académie des sciences morales et politiques), M. Vaïsse (Professor Emeritus, Institut d’études politiques, Paris)

Supported by the Labex EHNE, the BDIC and the Mission du Centenaire

As is well known, the First World War influenced the lives of Pierre Renouvin and Jean-Baptiste Duroselle. It left its mark on their personal, institutional and academic lives. Aged twenty four, the former was seriously injured at the Chemin des Dames in 1917. The latter was born in that very year and would be “haunted” his whole life long by the memory of the Grande Guerre des Français to which he devoted his last book in 1994. A generation separates them but both their names are brought together on the title page of the book “Introduction à l’histoire des relations Internationales” published in 1964. This book is dedicated to a field, which, as with other humanities and social sciences, was born from the intellectual turmoil that marked the First World War. Neither intended to be a mausoleum in memory of both French historians, nor an hagiographic account of a specific French historical “school,” this conference aims to situate the intellectual and academic career of these two historians within the intellectual debates. It will focus on the birth and the development of an academic area: the History of International Relations. The methodical building of this new academic area will be thoroughly examined, in particular through its interaction with other fields of the human and social sciences.

The careers of P. Renouvin and J.-B. Duroselle cannot be isolated from their social and political environment. Far from being confined to an ivory tower, they took part in the intellectual battles which left their mark on these decades (such as the criticism from Lucien Febvre or Marcel Merle). Deeply rooted within a French and Francophone field, they built transnational academic and political networks, which extended beyond France and Europe. Historians firmly engaged in the debates of their time (the role of Germany in the outbreak of the First World War; the Cold War; European construction), they practised an instant history, at the heart of the institutional struggles in France or worked to resolve them. Thus in order to understand fully their distinctiveness these two historians need to be studied in the context in which they lived, worked and taught. Having principally devoted their research and reflexions to Europe and its peoples, they did not however neglect other continents. Academics, but teachers first of all, they taught whole generations in France and abroad who were indelibly marked by their lectures. As researchers, they opened up research paths that their students have followed and deepened. Members of the intellectual establishment of their time, both men accumulated honours and responsibilities: their political networks will be brought to light.

At the beginning of a twenty-first century marked by the flourishing of global history, this conference will be the place for a free and specific debate on the character, subjects, sources and particular approaches of international history. This conference aims to offer a comparative and transnational approach of their itineraries, combining a thematic and a biographical approach.

We particularly welcome papers from foreign historians and scholars from other academic fields.

Possible paper topics include, but are not limited to:

The wars and their influence upon:
-academic careers
-institutional careers
-public and private writings
-the place of the military and strategic questions in their work

The institutionalization of international relations, a mark of the new influence
of the United States
-Diplomatic history and history of international relations
-reforms, new academic fields and academic chairs
-key role of American foundations (Carnegie, Rockfeller, Ford);
-Swiss and Italian collaboration
-The United States in the writings of P. Renouvin and J.-B. Duroselle

Sources, publishing and teamwork
-Sources
-The Documents diplomatiques français
-Documentation as a source of action (Commission des archives
diplomatiques)

Translation, transmission and reception
-The construction of an academic field: the history of international relations
-The building of a library: la Bibliothèque de documentation internationale contemporaine
-The publications: la Revue d’histoire de la Guerre
mondiale, L’Année politique, Relations internationales
-The establishment of an academic chair
-Topics of degree courses
-Masters and followers (Tuesday evening workshop of J.-B. Duroselle)
-The birth of the CERI (Fondation nationale des Sciences politiques)
-The institutional consecration : the académiciens des Sciences morales
et politiques

Europe and the world
-The “Asia” of Pierre Renouvin
-“Europe” as seen by P. Renouvin and J.B. Duroselle
-The United States of J.-B. Duroselle

Public action of both French scholars
-Academic and institutional struggles
-Pierre Renouvin during the Second World War
-Jean-Baptiste Duroselle during the Second World War
-Catholic and Christian-Democrat networks of Jean-Baptiste Duroselle
-Renouvin, the Dean and the creation of research centers at the Sorbonne
-The University of Vincennes and Jean-Baptiste Duroselle
-The “Europeist” action of Jean-Baptiste Duroselle and May 1968

These topics are not restrictive and each submission will be considered
carefully.

The conference languages will be English and French. Regardless of language, all proposals will receive due consideration.

The deadline for paper proposals is: 1st June 2016
Please send your proposal (abstract in English or French of no more than 500
words and short CV) to Andrea Martignoni: martignoni.andrea@yahoo.fr

Scientific Advisory Board of the Conference:
Laurence Badel (professor, Panthéon Sorbonne University),
Andrew Barros (professor, Université du Québec à Montréal),
Eric Bussière (director, UMR Sorbonne-IRICE),
Antoine Fleury (professor emeritus, Geneva University),
Robert Frank (professor emeritus, Panthéon Sorbonne University),
John Keiger (professor, Cambridge University),
Peter Jackson (professor, Glasgow University),
Thomas Maissen (director, Deutsches Historisches Institut, Paris),
Antoine Marès (professor, Panthéon Sorbonne University),
Antoine Prost (president, scientific board of the Bibliothèque de documentation internationale contemporaine, Paris),
Matthias Schulz (professor, Geneva University),
Georges-Henri Soutou (professor emeritus, Académie des sciences morales et politiques, Paris),
Arnold Suppan (professor, Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien),
Valérie Tesnière (director, Bibliothèque de documentation internationale contemporaine, Paris),
Maurice Vaïsse (professor emeritus, Institut d’études politiques, Paris),
Antonio Varsori (professor, Padova University),
Andreas Wirsching (director, Institut für Zeitgeschichte, München)

International Law Conference, Antwerp

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from Houssine Alloul:

International Law and Arbitration
From The Hague Conferences to the League of Nations
Global and Belgian perspectives

Seminar organized by PoHis (UAntwerpen)
2 June 2015
University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 10, 2000 Antwerp, room P.002

9:45 Welcome

10:00 Maartje Abbenhuis (University of Auckland): A Global History of the Hague Peace Conferences, 1898 – 1914

The two Hague conferences of 1899 and 1907 have a contested historiography. Depending on the historical tradition, the conferences are presented as either irrelevant, mere footnotes ‘en route to the First World War’, or as foundational moments shaping twentieth-century international law and order. Based on a variety of published and archival sources, this talk explains how contemporaries looked to The Hague conferences as golden opportunities to shape the international law and organisation and explains why these events are so important to understanding global realities of the time.

10:40 Vincent Genin (Université de Liège): Juristes, parlementaires et diplomates en Belgique dans le processus menant aux Conférences de la Paix de La Haye de 1875 à 1899/1907

Il n’est pas inintéressant de souligner que la manière dont la Belgique a appréhendé les Conférences de la Paix de La Haye de 1899 et 1907 mérite encore une étude solide. Notre ambition, dans le cadre de ce séminaire, est d’analyser les circonstances qui ont entouré ce rapport entre un pays déterminé et un phénomène défini, à savoir un aboutissement du processus de diffusion de l’arbitrage obligatoire entre les États. Promu en Belgique par diverses institutions, depuis 1870, et défendu de manière plus ferme par le Parlement dès 1875, cet arbitrage ou la volonté, par extension, de mettre sur pied un tribunal arbitral international, sont l’objet de débats importants en Belgique, tant au Ministère des Affaires étrangères, qu’au Parlement ou dans les écrits et correspondances privées des juristes de droit international. L’étude de ce phénomène et de la manière dont il a été représenté et accueilli, est l’objet de notre contribution.

11 :00 Maarten Van Alstein (Vlaams Vredesinstituut): A Realist View: The Belgian Diplomatic Elite and the League of Nations

After the First World War, principles such as collective security and arbitration were enhanced in international politics, not in the least because they formed the cornerstones of new international organizations such as the League of Nations. After nearly eighty decades of neutrality, Belgian policymakers and diplomats were determined to pursue a more activist foreign policy and engage in international organizations and alliances. Although Belgium became a member of the new League of Nations and provided the first president of its general assembly, Belgian policymakers and diplomats’ attitudes towards principles such as collective security and arbitration ranged from cautiousness to clear skepticism. Although an evolution towards increased trust in collective security and arbitration can be observed between 1919 and 1929, Belgian policymakers’ and diplomats’ views during this period remained predominantly based on realist premises and beliefs.

Participation is free, but registration is required. Please send an email to : henk.desmaele@uantwerpen.be.

Call for Papers: Music Diplomacy

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Popular Music and Public Diplomacy Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany 6-8 November 2015
Call for Papers
In the early years of the Cold War, Western nations increasingly turned towards popular music in their public diplomacy. While the diplomatic use of popular music was initially limited to such genres as jazz and gospel, the second half of the twentieth century saw a growing presence of various popular genres in diplomatic contexts, including country, bluegrass, rock, punk, reggae, and hip-hop. As an instrument of public diplomacy, popular music plays a complex role in contested terrain. Whether it functions as cultural subversion, as a reaffirmation of cultural hegemony, or as a combination of both is conditioned by a web of interdependent factors ranging from the music itself to its mediation and appropriation in different contexts.

Music diplomacy has not only impacted the ways in which audiences perceive foreign cultures, but it has also helped to shape the cultural horizons of politicians, diplomats, cultural managers, journalists, and musicians involved in diplomatic programs. In this way, music diplomacy has had highly significant cultural and aesthetic effects. The musicians’ role as their countries’ cultural ambassadors, for instance, had the potential to lead to radical transformations in the way they were perceived at home, forcing them to reconfigure their rhetorical and musical legitimation as artists. In a way, the diplomatic usability of musicians as ambassadors is an aesthetic and performative benchmark by means of which artists have re-defined themselves and their work. International cultural exchange with local musicians in host countries likewise inspired musical ambassadors to venture into previously unknown musical and cultural territories, thus impacting their aesthetics and oeuvres.

This conference seeks to illuminate the diplomatic function of popular music from a transnational and transdisciplinary perspective, accentuating its interconnectivity and dissemination across national borders. We are particularly interested in the nexus of power, popularity, aesthetics, and cultural exchange. How did popular music function in the ideological conflict between East and West, for instance, and how did its function change after the fall of the Iron Curtain? How did U.S. popular music programs interact with other nations’ initiatives to channel their self-representation through popular music? Who are the agents, stakeholders, and gatekeepers of popular music diplomacy? What is the role of celebrity in music diplomacy? Has popular music been an “efficient” instrument of national and communal self-representation and how do institutions measure its efficiency?

Proposals:
We invite contributions from a variety of disciplines, including cultural studies, musicology, ethnomusicology, political science, diplomacy studies, history, sociology, literature, international relations, and other relevant fields. Proposals should include a title, 250 word abstract, technical requirements, and short biographical sketch. Please submit your proposal by 1 April 2015 to musicaldiplomacy2015@gmail.com.

Keynote speakers include Martha Bayles (Boston College, U.S.) and Klaus Nathaus (University of Oslo, Norway). The conference is hosted by the Department of English and American Studies as well as the Department of Music and Musicology at TU Dortmund University, Germany.

Organizing Committee: Mario Dunkel (TU Dortmund University, Germany) Sina Nitzsche (TU Dortmund University, Germany)